I am about to tell you the People from ancient India who were so ahead of time and gave the new perspective to see the world
India is vast county it known for its beauty of nature and cultural heritage, it is the home of oldest religion in the world and here you can be part of one of the oldest cultural rituals. From around the globe people come here for meditation and to be part of something big, it is considered as the most religious place in the world. As we all know it not the size of the country that makes it great but the inhabitance of that country make it great, as all the great nations India has the most remarkable people, even in the ancient india this country had those intellectual people who changed the whole world’s perception to see the reality
Here are the few of them
We all know Chanakya for his work in Raajneeti we all know he was an explant politician and many of us may have read his book “Chanakya Neeti” but this not all his legacy. He was a teacher, philosopher, economist, jurist and royal advisor in the Moraya dynasty. He was the most brilliant economist in his time he wrote a book called the Arthashastra, it is the book that tells about the economy, nature of government. Still it the one of the most compact book for the economy, Chanaya is the pioneer of political and economic field even in the modern world. Chanakya assisted the first Mauryan emperor Chandragupta in his rise to power. He is widely credited for having played an important role in the establishment of the Maurya Empire. Chanakya served as the chief advisor to both Emperors Chandragupta and his son Bindusara.
Bhaskara born in Maharashtra he was a great mathematician in the 7th century, he was also a good student from Aryabhata’s astronomical school. He extended the work of Aryabhata in the mathematics he was the one who wrote the numbers in the Hindu decimal system with help of zero. He and Brahmagupta are two of the most renowned Indian mathematicians who made considerable contributions to the study of fractions he gave a unique and remarkable rational approximation of the sine function in his commentary on Aryabhatta’s work, the commentary known as the Aryabhatiyabhasya he also wrote two astronomical work Mahabhaskariya and Laghubhaskariya. Bhaskara’s is the most important mathematical contribution concerns the representation of numbers in a positional system.
He was a mathematician and an astronomer he was born in 598CE Brahmagupta was the first to give rules to compute with zero Brahmagupta became an astronomer of the Brahmapaksha School (one of the four major schools of Indian astronomy during this period). He wrote of him major books Brahmasphutasidhanta and Khandakhadyaka
Brahmasphutasidhanta was his main book, text of mathematical astronomy contains significant mathematical content, including a good understanding of the role of zero, rules for manipulating both negative and positive numbers, a method for computing square roots, methods of solving linear and quadratic equations, and rules for summing series, Brahmagupta’s identity, and Brahmagupta’s theorem.
The book contains the following rules
- The sum of two positive quantities is positive
- The sum of two negative quantities is negative
- The sum of zero and a negative number is negative
- The sum of zero and a positive number is positive
- The sum of zero and zero is zero
- The sum of a positive and a negative is their difference; or, if they are equal, zero
- In subtraction, the less is to be taken from the greater, positive from positive
- In subtraction, the less is to be taken from the greater, negative from negative
- When the greater however, is subtracted from the less, the difference is reversed
- When positive is to be subtracted from negative, and negative from positive, they must be added together
- The product of a negative quantity and a positive quantity is negative
- The product of two negative quantities is positive
- The product of two positive quantities is positive
- Positive divided by positive or negative by negative is positive
- Positive divided by negative is negative. Negative divided by positive is negative
- A positive or negative number when divided by zero is a fraction with the zero as denominator
- Zero divided by a negative or positive number is either zero or is expressed as a fraction with zero as numerator and the finite quantity as denominator
- Zero divided by zero is zero
In the Khandakhadyaka is an astronomical treatise this contains eight chapters covering such topics as the longitudes of the planets, diurnal rotation, lunar and solar eclipses, risings and settings, the moon’s crescent and conjunctions of the planets. The treatise also includes an appendix which is some versions has only one chapter, and in other has three.
- BHASKARACHARYA (BHASKARA-II)
He was an astronomer and mathematician born 1114 in Bijapur Karnatka. Bhaskara and his works represent a significant contribution to mathematical and astronomical knowledge in the 12th century. He has been called the greatest mathematician of medieval India. His major work was Sidhanta shiromani. Bhāskara’s work on calculus predates Newton and Leibniz by over half a millennium. He is particularly known in the discovery of the principles of differential calculus and its application to astronomical problems and computations. While Newton and Leibniz have been credited with differential and integral calculus, there is strong evidence to suggest that Bhāskara was a pioneer in some of the principles of differential calculus. He was perhaps the first to conceive the differential coefficient and differential calculus. He gave the crucial contribution in mathematics, arithmetic, algebra, trigonometry, calculus, astronomy
His works in astronomy are with the help of an astronomical model developed by Brahmagupta in the 7th century, Bhaskara accurately defined many astronomical quantities, including, for example, the length of the sidereal year, the time that is required for the Earth to orbit the Sun, as 365.2588 days which is the same as in Suryasiddhanta. The modern accepted measurement is 365.2563 days, a difference of just 3.5 minutes.
He born in the 9th century in the Bihar he was first who separated the astrology from mathematics. He expounded on the same subjects on which Aryabhata and Brahmagupta contended, but he expressed them more clearly. His work is a highly syncopated approach to algebra and the emphasis in much of his text is on developing the techniques necessary to solve algebraic problems he is one greatest mathematician because of his establishment of terminology for concepts such as equilateral, and isosceles triangle; rhombus; circle and semicircle. He wrote the Ganita sara sangraha which was the most advance book in Arithmetic in the present days. He was the one who prove that square root of negative number doesn’t exist. He discovered algebraic identities like a3=a(a+b)(a-b) +b2(a-b) + b3
In the ancient Indian mathematics and astronomy there is no bigger name than the Aryabhata, even for the expansion of modern mathematics his work in mathematics was very crucial and vital. He born in 476CE at the present day of Patna Bihar. His major work, Aryabhatiya, a compendium of mathematics and astronomy, was extensively referred to in the Indian mathematical literature and has survived to modern times. The mathematical part of the Aryabhatiya covers arithmetic, algebra, plane trigonometry, and spherical trigonometry. It also contains continued fractions, quadratic equations, sums-of-power series, and a table of sines.
His work in mathematics
Place value system and zero
While Europe came to understand the value of pi in 1761 Aryabhata had understood back in 449. In the second part of the Aryabhatiyam (gaṇitapāda 10), he writes:
caturadhikam śatamaṣṭaguṇam dvāṣaṣṭistathā sahasrāṇām
“Add four to 100, multiply by eight, and then add 62,000. By this rule the circumference of a circle with a diameter of 20,000 can be approached.”
This implies that the ratio of the circumference to the diameter is ((4 + 100) × 8 + 62000)/20000 = 62832/20000 = 3.1416
He also gave his contribution in trigonometry, indeterminate equations, algebra.
He was an astronomer as well. Aryabhata correctly insisted that the earth rotates about its axis daily, and that the apparent movement of the stars is a relative motion caused by the rotation of the earth, contrary to the then-prevailing view, that the sky rotated. This is indicated in the first chapter of the Aryabhatiya, where he gives the number of rotations of the earth in a yuga, and made more explicit in his gola chapter
Considered in modern English units of time, Aryabhata calculated the sidereal rotation (the rotation of the earth referencing the fixed stars) as 23 hours, 56 minutes, and 4.1 seconds the modern value is 23:56:4.091. Similarly, his value for the length of the sidereal year at 365 days, 6 hours, 12 minutes, and 30 seconds (365.25858 days) is an error of 3 minutes and 20 seconds over the length of a year (365.25636 days)
He was one who solve the mystery of solar and lunar eclipses.
No, wonder that India’s first satellite name after him.
He was a physician and a surgeon even he considered as “the father of surgery” in the Mahabharata Shushruta represented as son of Rishi Vishvamitra he wrote the “Shushruta Shamhita”. The Suśruta-saṃhitā is one of the most important surviving ancient treatises on medicine and is considered a foundational text of Ayurveda, on account of the extraordinarily accurate and detailed accounts of surgery to be found in the work he has also been called “the first plastic surgeon”
Next time when you read maths, physics, biology or astronomy think about works of these legends